Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of science and technology that focuses on the manipulation of matter at the nanoscale, which is typically defined as having dimensions less than 100 nanometers (nm). To put this into perspective, one nanometer is one billionth of a meter.

Nanotechnology involves the design, synthesis, characterization, and application of materials, devices, and systems by controlling and manipulating individual atoms and molecules. It is a highly interdisciplinary field that draws from physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and materials science.


Key aspects of nanotechnology include:



These are materials engineered or composed of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles often exhibit unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts due to their small size and high surface area-to-volume ratio. Common nanomaterials include nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanowires.



The development of electronic components and devices at the nanoscale. This includes the construction of nanoscale transistors and other electronic components that can lead to smaller and more efficient electronic devices.



The application of nanotechnology in medicine and healthcare. This includes targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic tools, and imaging techniques that operate at the nanoscale to provide more precise and effective treatments.




The development of methods and techniques for manufacturing nanoscale materials and devices. This includes techniques like chemical vapor deposition, lithography, and self-assembly.


Nanotechnology in materials science

The creation of advanced materials with enhanced properties by manipulating their nanoscale structure. This can lead to materials with improved strength, conductivity, and other desirable characteristics.


Nanotechnology in energy

Research into nanomaterials and devices for more efficient energy production, storage, and conversion. This includes applications in solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.


Nanoscale imaging and microscopy

The development of advanced techniques for visualizing and manipulating objects at the nanoscale. This includes scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).



Nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize various industries by enabling the creation of novel materials and devices with unprecedented properties and capabilities. It has applications in electronics, medicine, energy, environmental science, and many other fields. However, it also raises ethical, environmental, and safety concerns that need to be carefully addressed as the technology continues to advance.